26 December 2004 Sumatra Indonesia MEGAQUAKE Tsunami

Possible Meteor Rocks Indonesian Capital

SONIC BOOM

SS: 26 Dec 2004 Starry Night Maps show the Sun (head of the mayan cosmic serpent) is in the Hunab Ku Galactic Core and the Moon  is in the Stargate Region ... 2004 OBJECT Q2 Machholz is in region near Moon and Pleiades (the tail rattle of the mayan cosmic serpent) .. Major GRB explosion from Hunab Ku Galactic Center and Gravity Wave ...

Brightest Galactic Flash Ever Detected Hits Earth

Huge Quake Cracks Star

Detected Dec. 27, 2004

SS: Gravity Waves travel faster than light. It is theorized that they travel at the speed of thought which is instant. It appears that in this case the Gravity Wave arrived several hours before the GRB was detected. This gravity wave warped time and changed the time line .

2004/12/23 14:59:04 50.24S 160.13E 10.0 8.1 NORTH OF MACQUARIE ISLAND

A great earthquake occurred at 14:59:04 (t) on Thursday, December 23, 2004. The magnitude 8.1 event has been located NORTH OF MACQUARIE ISLAND. (This event has been reviewed by a seismologist.)

MEGAQUAKE

2005/01/01 19:08:06 7.29N 94.35E 37.7 5.9 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2005/01/01 14:29:10 8.07N 93.20E 20.7 5.2 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2005/01/01 06:25:44 5.05N 92.28E 10.0 6.5 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2005/01/01 04:03:12 5.46N 94.44E 45.5 5.8 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2005/01/01 01:55:28 2.87N 95.60E 26.0 5.7 SIMEULUE, INDONESIA
2004/12/31 17:48:05 4.72N 95.12E 46.1 5.4 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/31 16:15:44 7.67N 93.98E 20.5 5.1 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/31 14:38:46 5.11N 94.83E 48.2 5.6 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/31 13:41:48 3.18N 95.23E 30.3 5.6 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/31 12:04:56 6.22N 92.91E 4.6 6.0 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/31 10:58:24 5.03N 94.80E 36.4 5.5 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/31 09:57:00 7.62N 93.97E 23.3 5.4 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/31 02:24:00 7.13N 92.56E 11.9 6.3 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/30 17:58:09 12.26N 92.52E 17.6 5.9 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/30 17:34:44 6.74N 92.89E 27.9 5.5 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/30 06:38:20 8.98N 92.31E 35.3 4.9 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/30 04:27:36 5.52N 94.27E 30.8 5.5 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/30 01:43:05 4.22N 94.25E 30.0 5.1 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/30 01:04:51 4.23N 94.20E 12.7 5.6 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA

2004/12/29 21:12:59 5.20N 94.71E 25.8 5.7 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA

2004/12/29 05:56:50 8.78N 93.22E 30.0 6.2 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/29 03:50:43 46.19N 122.18W 0.0 2.7 MOUNT ST. HELENS AREA, WASHINGTON
2004/12/29 01:50:55 9.08N 93.79E 24.9 6.1 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/29 01:39:41 8.32N 93.18E 30.0 5.8 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION

2004/12/28 23:07:53 6.73N 93.00E 30.0 5.1 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/28 21:47:26 8.93N 93.74E 9.5 5.5 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/28 21:07:35 53.28N 173.83W 251.4 5.8 ANDREANOF ISLANDS, ALEUTIAN IS., ALASKA
2004/12/28 20:34:12 37.01N 28.34E 10.0 4.5 WESTERN TURKEY
2004/12/28 19:55:11 9.50N 93.71E 30.0 5.4 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/28 17:11:16 9.94N 93.80E 47.3 5.5 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/28 14:48:29 3.46N 93.69E 29.6 5.2 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/28 14:45:18 9.75S 78.90W 33.0 4.5 NEAR THE COAST OF NORTHERN PERU
2004/12/28 14:30:42 4.70N 95.24E 47.0 5.2 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/28 14:08:43 10.43N 93.01E 30.0 5.3 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/28 13:46:03 5.06N 96.16E 30.0 5.1 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/28 13:06:42 6.68N 93.06E 20.8 5.1 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/28 11:17:43 4.74N 95.20E 36.0 5.8 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/28 10:51:58 44.00S 169.33E 5.0 3.9 SOUTH ISLAND OF NEW ZEALAND
2004/12/28 09:30:39 37.24N 138.79E 33.4 5.1 NEAR THE WEST COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN
2004/12/28 07:47:11 18.04N 120.35E 37.4 4.6 LUZON, PHILIPPINES
2004/12/28 07:20:59 11.38N 92.90E 30.0 4.9 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/28 05:36:13 9.50N 93.72E 30.0 5.4 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/28 04:36:28 13.88N 93.33E 30.0 4.8 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/28 03:20:20 6.82N 92.81E 20.8 5.3 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/28 02:52:42 3.35N 93.73E 29.0 4.9 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/28 02:05:14 13.83N 93.47E 30.0 4.8 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/28 00:37:53 7.65N 94.15E 37.2 5.3 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION

2004/12/27 20:36:18 8.98N 93.69E 30.0 5.4 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 20:10:50 2.92N 95.61E 23.9 5.7 SIMEULUE, INDONESIA
2004/12/27 19:28:52 8.58N 93.66E 30.0 5.4 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 19:26:57 7.81N 92.13E 35.9 5.0 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 19:16:09 11.57N 93.09E 30.0 5.1 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 19:13:19 11.61N 92.53E 26.3 5.6 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 18:24:04 9.29N 93.86E 27.3 4.9 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 18:09:33 2.75N 94.64E 41.6 5.0 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/27 17:40:01 5.60N 93.16E 8.6 5.2 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/27 16:18:10 4.86N 94.25E 30.9 4.8 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/27 16:08:15 5.79N 93.12E 13.7 4.4 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/27 15:49:32 7.20N 92.27E 30.0 4.6 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 15:41:03 10.47N 92.86E 34.0 4.8 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 15:20:32 10.60N 93.59E 13.9 5.1 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 14:46:46 12.35N 92.50E 19.0 5.8 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 14:30:31 8.55N 93.86E 15.3 5.2 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 14:20:55 8.27N 93.55E 30.0 4.8 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 13:34:26 2.74N 95.64E 30.0 4.7 SIMEULUE, INDONESIA
2004/12/27 12:58:15 7.76N 93.23E 30.0 4.6 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 11:57:53 8.08N 92.28E 12.6 5.1 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 10:46:47 13.65N 93.07E 23.8 5.3 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 10:46:38 13.66N 93.10E 30.0 5.1 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 10:05:02 4.78N 95.11E 24.7 5.9 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/27 09:57:52 7.71N 92.66E 8.5 5.6 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION

2004/12/27 09:39:06 5.36N 94.65E 35.0 6.1 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/27 08:37:38 6.49N 93.24E 30.0 5.7 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 08:21:39 5.54N 94.59E 48.4 5.4 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/27 07:47:36 2.68N 94.49E 32.6 5.6 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/27 06:59:14 3.04N 95.55E 27.5 5.4 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/27 05:16:34 14.03N 93.09E 30.0 4.7 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 05:10:52 6.00N 93.21E 26.4 4.9 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/27 03:04:38 4.25S 152.69E 62.1 5.2 NEW BRITAIN REGION, PAPUA NEW GUINEA
2004/12/27 00:49:28 13.00N 92.43E 18.5 6.1 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/27 00:32:16 5.47N 94.47E 33.0 6.0 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/27 00:24:29 4.47N 93.76E 10.0 5.4 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/27 00:07:40 38.02S 176.42E 147.0 NORTH ISLAND OF NEW ZEALAND

2004/12/26 21:06:51 4.59N 96.37E 45.0 5.6 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/26 21:02:22 44.08N 11.19E 6.9 2.5 NORTHERN ITALY
2004/12/26 20:50:32 6.36N 126.89E 102.5 5.8 MINDANAO, PHILIPPINES

2004/12/26 19:19:56 2.78N 94.17E 30.0 6.1 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/26 19:03:49 4.11N 94.24E 30.0 5.4 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/26 18:42:43 13.75N 92.97E 23.5 5.3 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 15:12:22 6.70N 92.99E 19.5 5.5 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 15:06:35 3.66N 94.01E 30.0 5.9 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/26 14:48:44 13.63N 92.87E 30.0 5.7 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 13:56:40 2.77N 94.46E 30.0 5.9 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/26 12:11:58 11.54N 92.42E 30.0 5.5 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 12:09:41 12.23N 92.61E 13.4 5.4 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION

2004/12/26 11:05:00 13.52N 92.86E 13.1 6.2 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 10:51:20 7.59N 92.33E 30.0 5.6 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 10:19:28 13.47N 92.78E 5.8 6.3 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 10:18:13 8.97N 93.72E 14.4 5.5 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 10:07:46 37.40S 176.43E 208.0 NORTH ISLAND OF NEW ZEALAND

2004/12/26 09:19:59 8.87N 92.37E 6.4 6.6 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 07:52:32 8.17N 94.05E 48.1 5.4 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 07:38:27 13.15N 93.02E 30.0 5.8 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 07:07:12 10.37N 93.73E 30.0 5.6 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 06:38:39 6.71N 92.94E 37.6 5.5 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 06:22:02 10.67N 92.33E 38.9 5.5 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 06:02:29 8.31N 94.01E 28.9 5.6 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION

2004/12/26 04:21:29 6.89N 92.94E 39.7 7.1 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 04:10:12 5.51N 92.92E 33.9 5.4 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/26 03:24:54 4.49N 94.06E 25.6 5.7 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/26 03:19:15 3.72N 93.82E 30.0 5.6 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/26 03:17:52 7.16N 92.85E 30.0 5.8 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 03:14:13 7.40N 94.25E 30.0 5.4 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 03:08:44 13.74N 93.07E 30.0 5.9 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 02:59:14 3.21N 94.32E 30.0 5.8 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/26 02:52:01 12.50N 92.54E 30.0 5.8 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 02:36:09 12.19N 92.95E 33.3 5.8 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 02:34:52 4.02N 94.11E 30.0 5.7 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/26 02:22:03 8.87N 92.43E 26.4 5.8 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 02:15:56 12.35N 92.54E 7.9 5.7 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 01:48:49 5.41N 94.44E 31.3 5.8 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA
2004/12/26 01:40:07 5.77N 93.04E 30.0 5.3 OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA
2004/12/26 01:25:48 5.57N 94.12E 30.0 5.7 NORTHERN SUMATRA, INDONESIA

2004/12/26 01:21:21 6.35N 93.41E 30.0 6.0 NICOBAR ISLANDS, INDIA REGION
2004/12/26 00:58:53 3.32N 95.85E 30.0 9.1 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA 

A great earthquake occurred at 00:58:49 (UTC) on Sunday, December 26, 2004. The magnitude 9.0 event has been located OFF THE WEST COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA. (This event has been reviewed by a seismologist.)

At least 4,500 people killed by the earthquake and tsunami in Indonesia. Tsunamis killed at least 13,000 people in Sri Lanka, 3,500 in India, 866 in Thailand, 52 in Maldives, 44 in Malaysia, 30 in Myanmar, 8 in Somalia and 2 in Bangladesh. Tsunamis also occurred on the coasts of Cocos Island, Kenya, Mauritius, Reunion and Seychelles. The tsunami crossed into the Pacific Ocean and was recorded along the west coast of South and North America. The earthquake was felt (VIII) at Banda Aceh and (V) at Medan, Sumatra. It was also felt in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand. This is the fourth largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and is the largest since the 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska earthquake.

Magnitude 9.0 OFF W COAST OF NORTHERN SUMATRA Sunday, December 26, 2004 at 00:58:49 UTC Preliminary Earthquake Report  U.S. Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Center World Data Center for Seismology, Denver: The devastating megathrust earthquake of December 26, 2004, occurred on the interface of the India and Burma plates and was caused by the release of stresses that develop as the India plate subducts beneath the overriding Burma plate. The India plate begins its descent into the mantle at the Sunda trench, which lies to the west of the earthquake's epicenter. The trench is the surface expression of the plate interface between the Australia and India plates, situated to the southwest of the trench, and the Burma and Sunda plates, situated to the northeast.

In the region of the earthquake, the India plate moves toward the northeast at a rate of about 6 cm/year relative to the Burma plate. This results in oblique convergence at the Sunda trench. The oblique motion is partitioned into thrust-faulting, which occurs on the plate-interface and which involves slip directed perpendicular to the trench, and strike-slip faulting, which occurs several hundred kilometers to the east of the trench and involves slip directed parallel to the trench. The December 26 earthquake occurred as the result of thrust-faulting.

Preliminary locations of larger aftershocks following the
megathrust earthquake show that approximately 1200 km of the plate boundary slipped as a result of the earthquake. By comparison with other large megathrust earthquakes, the width of the causative fault-rupture was likely over one-hundred km. From the size of the earthquake, it is likely that the average displacement on the fault plane was about fifteen meters. The sea floor overlying the thrust fault would have been uplifted by several meters as a result of the earthquake. The above estimates of fault-dimensions and displacement will be refined in the near future as the result of detailed analyses of the earthquake waves.

The world's largest recorded earthquakes have all been megathrust events, occurring where one tectonic plate subducts beneath another. These include: the magnitude 9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, the magnitude 9.2 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska, earthquake, the magnitude 9.1 1957 Andreanof Islands, Alaska, earthquake, and the magnitude 9.0 1952 Kamchatka earthquake. As with the recent event, megathrust earthquakes often generate large tsunamis that cause damage over a much wider area than is directly affected by ground shaking near the earthquake's rupture.

Killer quake rattled earth orbit: scientists

SHAPE OF INDIA ALTERED Tsunami snuffs out southern light 

Quake 'Equal to A Million A-Bombs'

Scientists describe the devastating earthquake off the island of Sumatra as a “megathrust” – a grade reserved for the most powerful shifts in the Earth’s crust. The term does not entirely capture the awesome power of the fourth largest earthquake since 1900, or the tsunami catastrophes it spawned for coastal areas around the Indian Ocean. Despite its awesome power, the quake itself was not much of a surprise, scientists said. Sumatra is one of the most earthquake-prone places in the world, sitting atop one of the handful of sites where several plates of the planet’s crust overlap and grind. Colossal pressures build up over decades, only to release in a snap. “These subduction zones are where all the world’s biggest earthquakes are produced,” said geologist Kerry Sieh of the California Institute of Technology. “Sunday was one of the biggest earthquakes in the region in the past 200 years.” How powerful? By some estimates, it was equal to detonating a million atomic bombs.

Sieh and other scientists said it probably jolted the planet’s rotation. “It causes the planet to wobble a little bit, but it’s not going to turn Earth upside down,” Sieh said. Researchers also speculated on the extent to which the jolt might have changed Sumatra’s coastline. Extensive damage and flooding was preventing investigators from immediately reaching the scene. Beneath the ocean, the flexible edges of the crustal plates might shifted vertically by as much as 60 feet relative to each other. But even that kind of displacement would lift or lower the Sumatran coast by only a few feet or less, they said, and sea levels would not change dramatically. “Basically, the run up of high tide will be just a little further up or further back,” said Paul Earle, a geophysicist with the US Geological Survey. But inland, ground levels in northern Sumatra might have changed noticeably in places, Sieh said. “As the block of land on top of subduction zone lurches out west toward the Indian Ocean, you expect that area behind it to sink,” he said.

Seismologists said the epicentre of Sunday’s quake was more than 5.5 miles below the Indian Ocean off the west coast of Sumatra and about 150 miles south of the city of Bandah Aceh on the island’s northern tip. Beneath the ocean floor, the quake occurred along a long north-south fault where the edge of the Indian plate dives below the Burma plate. A sea floor feature known as the Sunda Trench marks where the Indian plate begins its grinding decent into the Earth’s hot mantle. Complicating matters, the edges of three other tectonic plates also bump here, with the Indian and Australian plates slowly sliding north west relative to the Burma plate. A 8-magnitude earthquake on the island’s southern tip was the most deadly tremor of 2000, causing at least 103 fatalities and more than 2,000 injuries. Giant quakes also rocked the area in 1797, 1833 and 1861. But they were preludes to Sunday’s event. Pressed from many directions, stress built up along the fault line off the Sumatra coast. A north-south fault ruptured along a 745-mile stretch, or about the length of California. It started offshore, then zigzagged inland beneath Sumatra’s northern tip and up beneath the Andaman Islands almost to the coast of Burma. Similar to quakes on the San Andreas fault in California, the tremor caused one side of the fault to slide past the other. The rupture released energy like shock waves, especially to the east and west. While ground shaking damaged buildings and roads on Sumatra, the real havoc was caused by large ocean waves in the Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean that were displaced by the quake. Known as tsunamis, the waves obliterated coastal resorts and communities as far away as Somalia in East Africa.

Volcano Barren-1 and Narcondum erupt in Andaman - Seismic disturbance can cause more Tsunami 

Volcano erupts in Andaman Islands December 30, 2004 INDIA's last active volcano, in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, has erupted in the aftermath of the earthquake that set off tsunamis killing thousands of people, official sources said today. People have been evacuated from Barren Island since the eruption began on Tuesday night and there are no reports of injury. Lava was flowing out of the rim of the crater, which towers above the Indian Ocean, the sources said. Tourists used to visit by boat and the island has a police station. The volcano, known as Barren 1, is located 135km north-east of the capital Port Blair and last erupted in 1996. It runs about 150 fathoms under the sea and usually gives off smoke. M M Mukherjee of the Geological Survey of India said the volcano presented little real danger. "The risk is minimised because it is surrounded by the sea so if at all there is a lava flow it will roll off into the sea," he said. The Andamans has reported a series of major aftershocks daily since the massive undersea earthquake off Sumatra. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are located near a zone of intense tectonic activity. A second volcano, called Narcondam and considered dormant, lies close to Barren Island, which also erupted in 1991 after more than a century of inactivity.

Large Igneous Provinces and the Mantle Plume Hypothesis Mantle plumes are columns of hot, solid material that originate deep in the mantle, probably at the core–mantle boundary. Laboratory and numerical models replicating conditions appropriate to the mantle show that mantle plumes have a regular and predictable shape that allows a number of testable predictions to be made. New mantle plumes are predicted to consist of a large head, 1000 km in diameter, followed by a narrower tail. Initial eruption of basalt from a plume head should be preceded by ~1000 m of domal uplift. High-temperature magmas are expected to dominate the first eruptive products of a new plume and should be concentrated near the centre of the volcanic province. All of these predictions are confirmed by observations.

Photograph of a laboratory model of a starting thermal plume (A) mid-way through its ascent and (B) after the head flattens at the top of its ascent. The dark fluid represents hot material from the plume source and the lighter fluid is cooler entrained material. White arrows show motion within the plume and black arrows the direction of motion in the boundary layer adjacent to the plume; the boundary layer has been heated by conduction so that its density is approximately the same as that of the plume (after Griffiths and Campbell 1990).

Hydrothermal "Megaplume" Found in Indian Ocean