How gravitational lensing acts like a magnifying glass



SS: we are looking at black holes and galaxy collisions. The Milky Way galaxy is like the collision illustrated in the second image above where dwarf galaxy is wrapping around a spiral galaxy. it seems to me in this conflict that the black hole in the center is the most important. i have already talked about how the andromedans have been disconnected from their black hole connection to their brown dwarf in the Milky Way galaxy when they were defeated last night by the secret order. the Milky Way black hole now connects with Cygnus X-1 in the Summer Triangle.

SS: UPDATE 03-10-15: we (all of us) should know and understand dwarf galaxy vs spiral galaxy collisions well since we are in one right now. when we look at the above map we can see all the dwarf galaxies orbiting the milky way while andromeda has much fewer that we can observe. there is an etheric tunnel link between andromeda and triangulum. there used to be one between the Milky Way and Andromeda due to their brown dwarf system until the Dwarf Galaxy Sagittarius collided with the Milky Way ..it appears as though some of the dwarf galaxies are merging into the Milky Way galaxy … we can see what we are up against tomorrow night as well .

Nine new dwarf galaxies full of dark matter found just chilling around the Milky Way March 10 at 8:00 AM The new dwarfs are a billion times dimmer than the Milky Way and a million times less massive, the researchers who discovered them report. They were found near the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud, which are the two biggest dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way. The closest of these nine newly found objects is less than 100,000 light years away, but the most distant is more than 1 million light years off. The objects were found using data recovered by the Dark Energy Survey, a five-year effort to photograph a large portion of the southern sky in unprecedented detail supported by over 120 scientists around the world. In fact, two separate research groups made the discovery independently using the data, and released their reports jointly.

Smallest Known Galaxy with a Supermassive Black Hole MANY BLACK HOLES MAY HIDE IN DWARF REMNANTS OF STRIPPED GALAXIES Sept. 17, 2014 – A University of Utah astronomer and his colleagues discovered that an ultracompact dwarf galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole – the smallest galaxy known to contain such a massive light-sucking object. The finding suggests huge black holes may be more common than previously believed. “It is the smallest and lightest object that we know of that has a supermassive black hole,” says Anil Seth, lead author of an international study of the dwarf galaxy published in Thursday’s issue of the journal Nature. “It’s also one of the most black hole-dominated galaxies known.”

The astronomers used the Gemini North 8-meter optical-and-infrared telescope on Hawaii’s Mauna Kea and photos taken by the Hubble Space Telescope to discover that a small galaxy named M60-UCD1 has a black hole with a mass equal to 21 million suns. Their finding suggests plenty of other ultracompact dwarf galaxies likely also contain supermassive black holes – and those dwarfs may be the stripped remnants of larger galaxies that were torn apart during collisions with yet other galaxies.

The Local Group is the galaxy group that includes the Milky Way. It comprises more than 54 galaxies, most of them being dwarf galaxies. Its gravitational center is located somewhere between the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy. The Local Group covers a diameter of 10 Mly (3.1 Mpc) and has a binary (dumbbell)[1] distribution. The group itself is a part of the larger Virgo Supercluster (i.e. the Local Supercluster).[2]

Arp 116 (APG 116) is a pair of interacting galaxies composed of elliptical galaxy Messier 60 and spiral galaxy NGC 4647, located in the Virgo Constellation, lying about 60 million light years away, in the Virgo Cluster, at right ascension 12h 43m 36.1s declination +11° 34′ 02″ .[1][2][3] Interaction between the two galaxies has just begun, with initial findings of tidal interaction being found in 2012.[1] With an apparent separation between the galaxies of 2′.5, the optical discs of the two galaxies overlap.[4]

NGC 7793 is a spiral galaxy about 12.7 million light-years away in the constellation Sculptor. It was discovered in 1826 by James Dunlop.[5] Black hole P13 in outer spiral[edit] Jets from a black hole named P13 power a large nebula named S26 in the outer spiral of this galaxy. P13 is stripping material away from a nearby star about ten times faster than was previously believed to be physically possible. P13 was first thought to be about the mass of our sun, then estimates place it more towards 1/15 the mass of our sun. If correct, this observation would show flaws in theories that a black hole’s mass and rate of consumption are a fixed relationship.[8][9] Recently, the mass of P13 was determined to be less then 15 solar masses, and it’s companion star is estimated to be around 20 solar masses. The two orbit eachother in 64 days.[10]

Messier 82 (also known as NGC 3034, Cigar Galaxy or M82) is a starburst galaxy about 12 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major. It is about five times more luminous than the whole Milky Way and one hundred times more luminous than our galaxy’s center.[5] The starburst activity is thought to be triggered by interaction with neighboring galaxy M81, and M82 is a member of the M81 Group.

The M81 Group is a galaxy group in the constellations Ursa Major and Camelopardalis that includes the well-known galaxies Messier 81 and Messier 82, as well as several other galaxies with high apparent brightnesses.[1] The approximate center of the group is located at a distance of 3.6 Mpc, making it one of the nearest groups to the Local Group.[1] The group is estimated to have a total mass of (1.03 ± 0.17)×1012M☉.[2] The M81 Group, the Local Group, and other nearby groups all lie within the Virgo Supercluster (i.e. the Local Supercluster).[3]

This Hubble Space telescope image shows the gargantuan galaxy M60 in the center, and the ultracompact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 below it and to the right, and also enlarged as an inset. A new international study led by University of Utah astronomer Anil Seth and published in the journal Nature found that M60-UCD1 is the smallest known galaxy with a supermassive black hole at its center, suggesting the dwarf galaxy originally was much larger but was stripped of its outer layers by gravity from galaxy M60 over billions of years. M60’s gravity also is pulling galaxy NGC4647, upper right, and the two eventually will collide. (NASA/Space Telescope Science Institute/European Space Agency)

This diagram shows how the effect of gravitational lensing around a normal galaxy focuses the light coming from a very distant star-forming galaxy merger to created a distorted, but brighter view. (ESO/M. Kornmesser)

This image shows the galaxy NGC 7793 about 12 million light-years from Earth. The galaxy is home to the voracious black hole P13, which is easily seen as the brightest blue source near the bottom of the image. (X-ray (NASA/CXC/Univ of Strasbourg/M. Pakull et al); Optical (ESO/VLT/Univ of Strasbourg/M. Pakull et al); H-alpha (NOAO/AURA/NSF/CTIO 1.5m))

Galaxy Messier 82 (M82) appears in two different views. NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope shows the galaxy in visible light (left) and NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory shows an X-ray view (right). (NASA)

This is an artist’s impression of supernova 1993J, which exploded in the galaxy M81. Using the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers have identified the blue helium-burning companion star, seen at the center of the expanding nebula of debris from the supernova. (NASA, ESA, G. Bacon (STScI))