Mayan Astronomy
The Maya made daytime observations of Venus. Venus had a psychological effect upon the Maya and other Mesoamerican cultures, it has been shown that the Maya were timing some of their wars based on the stationary points of Venus and Jupiter.

Teocalli of the Sacred War
The upper part of the front of the sculpture contains a solar disk flanked by two figures; within the disk is the date Four Movement. The figures are identified as Huitzilopochtli (left) (In Aztec mythology, Huitzilopochtli’ “Hummingbird on the Left”, or “Left-Handed Hummingbird”, huitzilin being Nahuatl for hummingbird), was a god of war, a sun god) and Moctezuma II (right) .. Below this, facing upwards, is a depiction of the earth deity Tlaltecuhtli, next to which are military equipment representing warfare. On the sides are skeletal figures that may represent deities. The back of the sculpture depicts an eagle above a cactus.

A piece representing Tlaloc, God of the Storm, is displayed as part of an exhibition of The Ancient Mesoamerican cities in Mexico City’s anthropology museum March 16, 2011. The exhibition, with more than 411 pieces, will be on display until May 16 according to the National Institute of Anthropology and History. REUTERS/Henry Romero (MEXICO – Tags: SOCIETY)

A monolith, Teocalli of the sacred warfare, is displayed as part of an exhibition of The Ancient Mesoamerican cities in Mexico City’s anthropology museum March 16, 2011. Theexhibition, with more than 411 pieces, will be on display until May 16 according to the National Institute of Anthropology and History. REUTERS/Henry Romero (MEXICO – Tags: SOCIETY)

A piece representing Huehueteotl, the old god of fire, is displayed as part of an exhibition of The Ancient Mesoamerican cities in Mexico City’s anthropology museum March 16, 2011. The exhibition, with more than 411 pieces, will be on display until May 16 according to the National Institute of Anthropology and History. REUTERS/Henry Romero (MEXICO – Tags: SOCIETY)