Archive for the ‘Historical Battles’ Category

Of the “Magna Carta: Law, Liberty, Legacy”

2014-06-30T224703Z_1791243340_GM1EA710IQM01_RTRMADP_3_USA

62f6c335a0e69819580f6a7067002cce

850d2a1ec9ccc619580f6a706700f0f9

War and Taxation John’s barons refused to support John’s attempts to campaign against Philip in Poitou.
–      John’s campaign was not only a failure, it was an expensive one. To try and recoup his costs, he issued in 1215 a demand for “scutage” from all the barons who had failed to join his expedition, at the rate of three marks (forty shillings) per shield.
–     [Scutage was the compensation payable by tenants who failed to provide knights to serve the king as rent for their feudal fief. The traditonal rate was one mark (thirteen shilling and four pence) per shield, and even King Richard had never demanded more than twenty shillings per knight].
–     Not only did King John demand high scutages and fine rigorously any failure to pay, he had already levied high taxes on land and movables (1203 and 1207).
–     John needed to increase taxes if he were to be able to pay the mercenary soldiers whose wages were rising in an age of inflation, but the barons perceived John’s exactions as excessive. In 1214 while John was abroad, many Northern barons simply refused to pay.
–     In 1215, the barons appealed to Pope Innocent III (now “lord of England”) against John’s exactions and for their traditional liberties. However, now that Innocent had John in his pocket, he simply ordered the barons to obey the king.
–     Ignoring the Pope, the barons –  led by Eustace de Vesci and Robert Fitz Walter – assembled under arms at Stamford in Spring 1215 and then marched south, renouncing all allegiance to John.
–     John (probably to buy time) agreed to consider the barons’ demands, and Archbishop Stephen Langton took charge of brokering a compromise. On 15 June 1215 at Runnymede, King John signed Magna Carta.

Visitors view one of four remaining copies of the original Magna Carta, a document written in 1215, on display at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston June 30, 2014 . An inspiration for the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights, the document is on loan from England’s Lincoln Cathedral. REUTERS/Gretchen Ertl (UNITED STATES – Tags: SOCIETY)

Linda Apple, of Melrose, Mass., looks at a copy of the Magna Carta, one of the pivotal documents of Western civilization, in a display case at Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts, Monday, June 30, 2014. One of only four surviving copies of the original 1215 document, it is on loan from the Lincoln Cathedral in the United Kingdom. (AP Photo/Steven Senne)

In this file photo dated Wednesday, Feb. 5, 2014, wearing gloves and a mask, Chris Woods, director of London’s National Conservation Service, unveils the Magna Carta, in Houston, USA, before is goes on display at the Houston Museum of Natural Science for six months starting Feb. 14, 2014. The British Library have announced Thursday July 2, 2014, an exhibition marking the 800th anniversary of the Magna Carta, entitled “Magna Carta: Law, Liberty, Legacy” running from March to September 2015, to include two of the most famous documents in American history. The American Bill of Rights, and the Declaration of Independence will go on display along with the Magna Carta, in the exhibition. (AP Photo/Pat Sullivan)

Visitors to the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, including Peter Drummery (C), of the Massachusetts Historical Society, exhibit curator Gerald Ward (R) view one of four remaining copies of the original Magna Carta, a document written in 1215, June 30, 2014. An inspiration for the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights, the document is on loan from England’s Lincoln Cathedral. REUTERS/Gretchen Ertl (UNITED STATES – Tags: SOCIETY)

Peter Drummey, of the Massachusetts Historical Society, left, Exhibition Curator and New Hampshire State Rep. Gerald Ward, D-Portsmouth, center, and Lloyd Schwartz, or Somerville, Mass., right, look at a copy of the Magna Carta, one of the pivotal documents of Western civilization, in a display case at Boston’s Museum of Fine Arts, Monday, June 30, 2014. One of only four surviving copies of the original 1215 document, it is on loan from the Lincoln Cathedral in the United Kingdom. (AP Photo/Steven Senne)

2014-06-30T224515Z_1512331871_GM1EA710IEQ01_RTRMADP_3_USA

d63b929ea0e69819580f6a7067005ee8

    Of the Battle of the Nations Tournament

    2014-06-14T235232Z_1414890044_GM1EA6F0K7Q01_RTRMADP_3_CROATIA

    2014-06-14T225326Z_2059003038_GM1EA6F0IXS01_RTRMADP_3_CROATIA

    2014-06-14T230240Z_1183528960_GM1EA6F0IZ001_RTRMADP_3_CROATIA

    Women walk at the camp during the Battle of the Nations World Championship tournament in Trogir, south Croatia, June 14, 2014. About 25 national teams from five continents participated in the Battle of the Nations, a full-contact historical medieval battle. REUTERS/Antonio Bronic (CROATIA – Tags: SOCIETY)

    A woman smokes a pipe during the Battle of the Nations World Championship tournament in Trogir, south Croatia, June 14, 2014. About 25 national teams from five continents participated in the Battle of the Nations, a full-contact historical medieval battle. REUTERS/Antonio Bronic (CROATIA – Tags: SOCIETY)

    A man blows a bull horn during the Battle of the Nations World Championship tournament in Trogir, south Croatia, June 14, 2014. About 25 national teams from five continents participated in the Battle of the Nations, a full-contact historical medieval battle. REUTERS/Antonio Bronic (CROATIA – Tags: SOCIETY)

    Men dressed as knights warm up during the Battle of the Nations World Championship tournament in Trogir, south Croatia, June 14, 2014. About 25 national teams from five continents participated in the Battle of the Nations, a full-contact historical medieval battle. REUTERS/Antonio Bronic (CROATIA – Tags: SOCIETY)

    Men dressed as knights fight during the Battle of the Nations World Championship tournament in Trogir, south Croatia, June 14, 2014. About 25 national teams from five continents are participating in the Battle of the Nations, a full-contact historical medieval battle. REUTERS/Antonio Bronic (CROATIA – Tags: SOCIETY)

    A woman speaks to a man dressed as a knight before he fights in the Battle of the Nations World Championship tournament in Trogir, south Croatia, June 14, 2014. About 25 national teams from five continents participated in the Battle of the Nations, a full-contact historical medieval battle. REUTERS/Antonio Bronic (CROATIA – Tags: SOCIETY)

    Men dressed as knights stand in a line before a fight during the Battle of the Nations World Championship tournament in Trogir, south Croatia, June 14, 2014. About 25 national teams from five continents participated in the Battle of the Nations, a full-contact historical medieval battle. REUTERS/Antonio Bronic (CROATIA – Tags: SOCIETY)

    Helmets, suits of body armour and a sword are seen among other items in a pile on the ground during the Battle of the Nations World Championship in Trogir, south Croatia, June 14, 2014. About 25 national teams from five continents participated in the Battle of the Nations, a full-contact historical medieval battle. REUTERS/Antonio Bronic (CROATIA – Tags: SOCIETY)

    2014-06-14T230941Z_1581315633_GM1EA6F0IZE01_RTRMADP_3_CROATIA

    2014-06-14T223235Z_648616265_GM1EA6F0HTJ01_RTRMADP_3_CROATIA

    2014-06-14T225942Z_896830824_GM1EA6F0IYK01_RTRMADP_3_CROATIA

    2014-06-14T232251Z_1511398283_GM1EA6F0K1701_RTRMADP_3_CROATIA

    2014-06-14T231706Z_1554331987_GM1EA6F0IZO01_RTRMADP_3_CROATIA

      Of the American Civil War Battle of Gettysburg

      1372846655825_751_21y0kwnS8Abf1_0_0

      2013-07-05T235841Z_1957170524_GM1E9760M0B01_RTRMADP_3_USA-GETTYSBURG-REENACTMENT

      2013-07-05T182845Z_149712465_GM1E97606TI01_RTRMADP_3_USA-GETTYSBURG-REENACTMENT

      2013-07-05T182749Z_934501310_GM1E97606MZ01_RTRMADP_3_USA-GETTYSBURG-REENACTMENT

      174dae689ed11215360f6a706700ce7d

      Allen Guelzo, author of “Gettysburg: The Last Invasion,” recounts the key events from the third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. (CBSTV Videos)

      Federal (Union) Colonel Edward Cross (L) forms his troops prior to the battle in “The Wheatfield” during re-enactment activities to recognize the 150th anniversary of the U.S. Civil War battle in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 5, 2013. Cross, wearing a black headband, had a premonition that he would die in the battle which proved correct. Gettysburg officials are expecting 250,000 visitors to visit the small south-central Pennsylvania borough of about 7,700 residents for the anniversary. REUTERS/Gary Cameron (UNITED STATES – Tags: SOCIETY CONFLICT ANNIVERSARY TRAVEL)

      Federal (Union) General George Armstrong Custer (R) waves to the crowd after the re-enactment battle “Cavalry Battle at Hunterstown” July 5, 2013 recognizing the 150th anniversary of the U.S. Civil War battle in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Gettysburg officials are expecting 250,000 visitors to visit the small south-central Pennsylvania borough of about 7,700 residents for the anniversary. REUTERS/Gary Cameron (UNITED STATES – Tags: SOCIETY CONFLICT ANNIVERSARY)

      Mounted Union reenactors takes part in a demonstration of a battle during ongoing activities commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, Friday, June 28, 2013, at at Bushey Farm in Gettysburg, Pa. Union forces turned away a Confederate advance in the pivotal battle of the Civil War fought July 1-3, 1863, which was also the war’s bloodiest conflict with more than 51,000 casualties. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke)

      Federal (Union) and Confederate troops battle in “The Wheatfield” during re-enactment activities to recognize the 150th anniversary of the U.S. Civil War battle in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 5, 2013. Gettysburg officials are expecting 250,000 visitors to visit the small south-central Pennsylvania borough of about 7,700 residents for the anniversary. REUTERS/Gary Cameron (UNITED STATES – Tags: SOCIETY CONFLICT ANNIVERSARY TRAVEL)

      2013-06-30T213351Z_807862844_GM1E9710C1T01_RTRMADP_3_USA-GETTYSBURG-REENACTMENT

      32a574f29ed11215360f6a70670079ee

      aab164fc3a178d16360f6a7067006985

      452130979e611015360f6a706700b4aa

      2013-06-30T152858Z_1021600155_GM1E96U1SQN01_RTRMADP_3_USA-GETTYSBURG-REENACTMENT

      2013-06-30T153036Z_419123032_GM1E96U1SQV02_RTRMADP_3_USA-GETTYSBURG-REENACTMENT

      Actors playing Federal and Confederate troops reenact Pickett’s Charge at the finale of the Blue Gray Alliance, during events marking the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania June 30, 2013. The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1-3, 1863, in and near the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and was the battle with the highest number of casualties in the Civil War. The Union army defeated a force led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee in what is often described as the turning point of the war. REUTERS/Mark Makela (UNITED STATES – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY CONFLICT TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY)

      Reenactors demonstrate a battle during ongoing activities commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, Friday, June 28, 2013, at at Bushey Farm in Gettysburg, Pa. Union forces turned away a Confederate advance in the pivotal battle of the Civil War fought July 1-3, 1863, which was also the war’s bloodiest conflict with more than 51,000 casualties. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke)

      In this June 29, 2013 file photo, Confederate re-enactors take part in a demonstration of a battle during ongoing activities commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg at Bushey Farm in Gettysburg, Pa. One of the most difficult challenges for any mock general at a Civil War battle re-enactment is deciding which of his men must “die.” (AP Photo/Matt Rourke)

      Reenacotrs demonstrate a battle during ongoing activities commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, Friday, June 28, 2013, at at Bushey Farm in Gettysburg, Pa. Union forces turned away a Confederate advance in the pivotal battle of the Civil War fought July 1-3, 1863, which was also the war’s bloodiest conflict with more than 51,000 casualties. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke)

      Actors playing Confederate and Union troops lay “dead” after a reenactment of The Battle of Little Roundtop during the Blue Gray Alliance events marking the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania June 30, 2013. The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1-3, 1863, in and near the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and was the battle with the highest number of casualties in the Civil War. The Union army defeated a force led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee in what is often described as the turning point of the war. REUTERS/Mark Makela (UNITED STATES – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY CONFLICT)

      Mortar crews fire their weapons for accuracy after the re-enactment battle “Cavalry Battle at Hunterstown” July 5, 2013 recognizing the 150th anniversary of the U.S. Civil War battle in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Gettysburg officials are expecting 250,000 visitors to visit the small south-central Pennsylvania borough of about 7,700 residents for the anniversary. REUTERS/Gary Cameron (UNITED STATES – Tags: SOCIETY CONFLICT ANNIVERSARY)

      Actors playing Confederate troops charge up a hill towards Union forces during a reenactment of The Battle of Little Roundtop during the Blue Gray Alliance events marking the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania June 30, 2013. The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1-3, 1863, in and near the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and was the battle with the highest number of casualties in the Civil War. The Union army defeated a force led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee in what is often described as the turning point of the war. REUTERS/Mark Makela (UNITED STATES – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY CONFLICT)

      Federal (Union) and Confederate troops battle in “The Wheatfield” during re-enactment activities to recognize the 150th anniversary of the U.S. Civil War battle in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 5, 2013. Gettysburg officials are expecting 250,000 visitors to visit the small south-central Pennsylvania borough of about 7,700 residents for the anniversary. REUTERS/Gary Cameron (UNITED STATES – Tags: SOCIETY CONFLICT ANNIVERSARY TRAVEL)

      2013-07-05T192405Z_703097524_GM1E97609DN01_RTRMADP_3_USA-GETTYSBURG-REENACTMENT

      2013-07-06T000136Z_619692339_GM1E9760M5D01_RTRMADP_3_USA-GETTYSBURG-REENACTMENT

        Of the Napoleon Battle of Austerlitz

        History enthusiasts dressed as soldiers fight during the re-enactment of Napoleon’s famous battle of Austerlitz near the southern Moravian town of Slavkov December 1, 2012. Hundreds of history enthusiasts took part in the re-enactment of the battle to mark its 207th anniversary. REUTERS/David W Cerny (CZECH REPUBLIC – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY)

        History enthusiasts dressed as soldiers fight during the re-enactment of Napoleon’s famous battle of Austerlitz near the southern Moravian town of Slavkov December 1, 2012. Hundreds of history enthusiasts took part in the re-enactment of the battle to mark its 207th anniversary. REUTERS/David W Cerny (CZECH REPUBLIC – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY)

        History enthusiasts dressed as soldiers fight during the re-enactment of Napoleon’s famous battle of Austerlitz near the southern Moravian town of Slavkov December 1, 2012. Hundreds of history enthusiasts took part in the re-enactment of the battle to mark its 207th anniversary. REUTERS/David W Cerny (CZECH REPUBLIC – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY)

          Of the Battle of Borodino

          Members of historic clubs wearing 1812-era uniforms take part in a in a staged battle re-enactment to mark the 200th anniversary of the battle of Borodino, in Borodino, about 110 km (70 miles) west of Moscow, Sunday, Sept. 2, 2012. The Battle of Borodino in 1812 was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the French invasion of Russia. (AP Photo/Mikhail Metzel)

          Members of historic clubs wearing 1812-era uniforms take part in a staged battle re-enactment to mark the 200th anniversary of the battle of Borodino, in Borodino, about 110 km (70 miles) west of Moscow, Sunday, Sept. 2, 2012. The Battle of Borodino in 1812 was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the French invasion of Russia. (AP Photo/Mikhail Metzel)

          An actor playing the part of a French general, center, as other members of historic clubs wearing 1812-era uniforms perform during a staged battle re-enactment to mark the 200th anniversary of the battle of Borodino, in Borodino, about 110 km (70 miles) west of Moscow, Sunday, Sept. 2, 2012. Russia marks on Sunday the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Borodino which in 1812 was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the French invasion of Russia. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko)

          Participants in period costume re-enact the battle of Borodino at the Borodino museum-reserve during anniversary celebrations outside Moscow September 2, 2012. Russian President Vladimir Putin made a rousing call for unity among Russia’s diverse ethnic and religious groups on Sunday as he led commemorations of a battle 200 years ago that led to the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte. REUTERS/Sergei Karpukhin (RUSSIA – Tags: ANNIVERSARY POLITICS CONFLICT)

          Participants in period costume re-enact the battle of Borodino during anniversary celebrations at the Borodino museum-reserve outside Moscow September 2, 2012. Russian President Vladimir Putin made a rousing call for unity among Russia’s diverse ethnic and religious groups on Sunday as he led commemorations of a battle 200 years ago that led to the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte. REUTERS/Sergei Karpukhin (RUSSIA – Tags: ANNIVERSARY POLITICS CONFLICT TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY)

            Of the Ix Chel-Sehkmet Astral Lightening Strike

            SS: i am pretty certain that we have just seen the first Ix Chel-Sehkmet astral lightning strike .. on the 22 aug the object received a direct hit by a solar flare and a few hours later the 23 aug penguin earthquake occurred .. it is possible this was just an arrival lightening strike since the comet has appeared to survive the solar flare and continues to coast in towards the sun with her maahes nephews .

            Xbalanque – Maahes ( J2 Linear )
            Hunahpu – Maahes ( GOD L5 Linear )

            SS: i began to call the two maahes comets ” the nephews ” because the hopi indians talk about a comet that travels with “two nephew comets” in formation just like the two maahes comets above appear to move with the Ix Chel-Sehkmet . after the passage of the comet with the two nephews called “blue kachina” comes another comet called “red kachina” which the next will be L4 PANSTARRS . there are different kinds of comets and we have a full sehkmet comet with two “nephew” maahes traveling with it .

            Many versions of the Twin Myth must have circulated among the Mayas, but the only one that survives in a written form is the Classical K’iche’ version in the Popol Vuh. According to this version, the Hero Twins were Xbalanque and Hunahpu (Modern K’iche’: Xb‘alanke and Junajpu)

            In Egyptian mythology, Sekhmet was originally the warrior goddess as well as goddess of healing Upper Egypt. She is depicted as a lioness, the fiercest hunter known to the Egyptians. It was said that her breath created the desert. She was seen as the protector of the pharaohs and led them in warfare.

            Maahes, God of War and Protection, The Leonine Lord of SlaughterMaahes (Mahes, Mihos, Miysis, Mysis) was the ancient Egyptian lion-god of war. Both a god of war and a guardian and a lord of the horizon. He was believed to help Ra fight against Apep in the solar barque each night, a god who protected the pharaoh while he was in battle.



            2011 Of the Damage Cracked Obelisk
            2011 Of the Missing Penguin Spire

            SS: the earthquake was triangulated and resonated .. it appears the monument was the actual center of the strike and the penguin spire pinged it .. that obelisk appears as a lightning struck it and the bolt extended to the penguin spires .. the Ix Chel-Sehkmet is here .

            Tribal members in Native American dress visit the trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange Thursday, Aug. 25, 2011, during ceremonies celebrating NativeOne becoming the exchange’s first Native American-owned member. (AP Photo/Richard Drew)

            An actor rides a horse during a reconstruction of the battle called the “Miracle at the Vistula River” (Cud nad Wisa), which was the decisive battle of the 1920 Polish-Soviet War, at Radom August 15, 2011. REUTERS/Marcin Kucewicz/Agencja Gazeta (POLAND – Tags: ANNIVERSARY IMAGES OF THE DAY)

            MINERAL, VA – AUGUST 24: The North Anna Power Station operated by Dominion Energy remains offline after losing offsite power in the wake of yesterday’s 5.8 earthquake August 24, 2011 near Mineral, Virginia. The epicenter of the quake, the East Coast’s largest since 1944, was located a few miles outside of Mineral, a town of 430 people located about 50 miles west of Richmond and about 7 miles from the North Anna plant. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)

            The west-facing side of the Washington Monument is photographed the day after an earthquake shook the east coast and damaged one of the stones at the top of the monument, in Washington August 24, 2011. Structural engineers are expected to make further assessments on Wednesday and the monument remains closed until further notice, a National Park Service spokesman said. REUTERS/Molly Riley (UNITED STATES – Tags: DISASTER)

              558th Anniversary of the Conquest of Istanbul

              05-29-11ottoman03_r3939024110

              05-29-11ottoman04_r3939024110

              05-29-11ottoman05_r3939024110

              Turkish soldiers dressed in Ottoman Janissary outfits take part in a ceremony in front of the historical city walls to mark the 558th anniversary of the conquest of Istanbul by Ottoman Turks, in Istanbul May 29, 2011. “The Conqueror”, Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II, captured Istanbul in 1453 which led to the end of the Byzantium Empire. REUTERS/Murad Sezer (TURKEY – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY)

              Turkish soldiers dressed in Ottoman outfits take part in a ceremony in front of the historical city walls to mark the 558th anniversary of the conquest of Istanbul by Ottoman Turks, in Istanbul May 29, 2011. “The Conqueror”, Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II, captured Istanbul in 1453 which led to the end of the Byzantium Empire. REUTERS/Murad Sezer (TURKEY – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY)

              An actor plays the role of “The Conqueror” Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II during a ceremony in front of the historical city walls to mark the 558th anniversary of the conquest of Istanbul by Ottoman Turks, in Istanbul May 29, 2011. Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II captured Istanbul in 1453 which led to the end of the Byzantium Empire. REUTERS/Murad Sezer (TURKEY – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY)

              Visitors take pictures at the Panorama 1453 History Museum on the 558th anniversary of the conquest of the city by Ottoman Turks, in Istanbul May 29, 2011. Istanbul’s Panorama 1453 History Museum, Turkey’s first panoramic museum, tells the story of the conquest of the city by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. REUTERS/Murad Sezer (TURKEY – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY)

              A visitor takes pictures at the Panorama 1453 History Museum, during the 558th anniversary of the conquest of the city by Ottoman Turks, in Istanbul May 29, 2011. Istanbul’s Panorama 1453 History Museum, Turkey’s first panoramic museum, tells the story of the conquest of the city by the Ottoman Empire in 1453. REUTERS/Murad Sezer (TURKEY – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY)

              05-29-11ottoman02_r3939024110

              05-29-11ottoman01_r3939024110

                Of the Battle of Puebla

                Mexico’s naval training ship ARM Cuauhtemoc sails into the Bahia de Santa Lucia in Acapulco November 23, 2011. The Cuauhtemoc is returning from a seven and a half months-long instruction trip in the Mediterranean as Mexico’s armed naval forces is celebrating its national day. REUTERS/Bernardo Montoya (MEXICO – Tags: MARITIME MILITARY)

                Mexican Navy tall ship Cuauhtemoc arrives in Havana Bay, Cuba, Sunday May 1, 2011. Named after the last Aztec emperor Cuauhtemoc, the tall ship is used as a sail training vessel for the Mexican Navy and is visiting Cuba as part of a 230-day voyage to 16 ports in 3 continents. (AP Photo/Javier Galeano)

                Soldiers fire cannons before the re-enactment of the battle of Puebla in Puebla May 5, 2011. The battle marked the defeat of French forces by Mexican troops and local Indians in the central state of Puebla in 1862. REUTERS/Imelda Medina (MEXICO – Tags: MILITARY ANNIVERSARY)

                Soldiers wearing period costumes take part in a re-enactment of the battle of Puebla in Puebla May 5, 2011. The battle marked the defeat of French forces by Mexican troops and local Indians in the central state of Puebla in 1862. REUTERS/Imelda Medina (MEXICO – Tags: MILITARY ANNIVERSARY)

                A Mexican soldier shows a seized gun with gold and diamond details at the military zone of Mexico City, May 6, 2011. Guns belonging to drug gangs that have been modified may be retained for analysis while those inlaid with gold and expensive carvings often end up in exhibitions. Brigadier General Antonio Erasto Monsivais, the general in charge of decommissioning weapons seized from drug dealers, estimated around 70-80 percent of all arms seized were melted down and turned into everything from industrial hardware to sculptures. Usable weapons that conform with military regulations are sometimes given to the army. REUTERS/Jorge Dan Lopez (MEXICO – Tags: SOCIETY CRIME LAW)

                View of gun butts made of gold, diamonds, emeralds and rubies to form the Mexican flag, in Culiacan, Sinaloa state, July 2011. A top US Justice Department official told lawmakers Tuesday that better controls are needed to help stem the flow of weapons from the United States into Mexico, where they may end up in the hands of drug cartels. (AFP Photo/Yuri Cortez)

                Stacks of U.S. hundred dollar bills are displayed during a presentation to the media in Mexico City November 22, 2011. Soldiers seized more than $15 million from a car in Tijuana during a patrol on Friday, according to a statement from the Attorney General’s Office. REUTERS/Bernardo Montoya (MEXICO – Tags: CRIME LAW MILITARY)

                  Of the Encrypted Dispatch Confederate Note

                  Message in a Bottle

                  2013-06-30T152503Z_33393231_GM1E96U1SQ401_RTRMADP_3_USA-GETTYSBURG-REENACTMENT

                  Civil War message opened, decoded: No help coming December 26, 2010 RICHMOND, Va. (AP) — A glass vial stopped with a cork during the Civil War has been opened, revealing a coded message to the desperate Confederate commander in Vicksburg on the day the Mississippi city fell to Union forces 147 years ago. The dispatch offered no hope to doomed Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton: Reinforcements are not on the way.

                  In this Jan. 14, 2009 image shows a Civil War bottle with a message that was tucked inside at the Museum of the Confederacy in Richmond, Va. The message to Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton says reinforcements will not be arriving. The encrypted dispatch was dated July 4, 1863 — the date of Pemberton’s surrender to Union forces led by Ulysses S. Grant in what historians say was a turning point in the war. (AP Photo/Museum of the Confederacy)

                  An actor playing a Confederate soldier marches before waging a reenactment of The Battle of Little Roundtop during the Blue Gray Alliance events marking the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania June 30, 2013. The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1-3, 1863, in and near the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and was the battle with the highest number of casualties in the Civil War. The Union army defeated a force led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee in what is often described as the turning point of the war. REUTERS/Mark Makela (UNITED STATES – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY CONFLICT)

                  Actors playing Confederate soldiers congregate at a wood’s edge awaiting orders to charge during a reenactment of The Battle of Little Roundtop during the Blue Gray Alliance events marking the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania June 30, 2013. The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1-3, 1863, in and near the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and was the battle with the highest number of casualties in the Civil War. The Union army defeated a force led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee in what is often described as the turning point of the war. REUTERS/Mark Makela (UNITED STATES – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY CONFLICT)

                  Re-enactors demonstrate Pickett’s Charge during ongoing activities commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, Sunday, June 30, 2013, at Bushey Farm in Gettysburg, Pa. Union forces turned away a Confederate advance in the pivotal battle of the Civil War fought July 1-3, 1863, which was also the war’s bloodiest conflict with more than 51,000 casualties. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke)

                  2013-06-30T152241Z_829412879_GM1E96U1SPY01_RTRMADP_3_USA-GETTYSBURG-REENACTMENT

                  32d3c7dadcf34315360f6a706700ef58

                    Of the Napoleon Moravian Battle of Austerlitz

                    A historical re-enactment enthusiast dressed as a soldier rides his horse near the southern Moravian village of Tvarozna December 3, 2010. Hundreds of history enthusiasts gathered near the city of Slavkov ahead of a re-enactment of Napoleon’s famous battle of Austerlitz on Saturday to mark its 205th anniversary. REUTERS/David W Cerny (CZECH REPUBLIC – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY ANIMALS)

                    Historical re-enactment enthusiasts dressed as soldiers ride their horses near the southern Moravian village of Tvarozna December 3, 2010. Hundreds of history enthusiasts gathered near the city of Slavkov ahead of a re-enactment of Napoleon’s famous battle of Austerlitz on Saturday to mark its 205th anniversary. REUTERS/David W Cerny (CZECH REPUBLIC – Tags: ANNIVERSARY SOCIETY)

                    History enthusiasts dressed as soldiers march during the re-enactment of Napoleon’s famous battle of Austerlitz near the southern Moravian town of Slavkov December 4, 2010. Hundreds of history enthusiasts took part in the re-enactment of the battle to mark its 205th anniversary. REUTERS/David W Cerny (CZECH REPUBLIC – Tags: ANNIVERSARY) SOCIETY)

                    History enthusiasts take part in a re-enactment of the Battle of Austerlitz to mark its 205th anniversary near the town of Slavkov, Czech Republic, Saturday, Dec. 4, 2010. The Battle of Austerlitz is widely considered to be Napoleon’s greatest victory, as he destroyed the troops of the Third Coalition made up of Russian and Austrian forces, giving France a glorious victory and prompting other changes in the European diplomatic area. (AP Photo/Petr David Josek)

                    History enthusiasts dressed as soldiers march during the re-enactment of Napoleon’s famous battle of Austerlitz near the southern Moravian town of Slavkov December 4, 2010. Hundreds of history enthusiasts took part in the re-enactment of the battle to mark its 205th anniversary. REUTERS/David W Cerny (CZECH REPUBLIC – Tags: ANNIVERSARY) SOCIETY)

                      Return top

                      Silver Star

                      Photobucket